Anti-Hair Entanglement
Triodyne Safety Alert v. 1 #1 (February 1998)
Ralph L. Barnett

When bathers or swimmers place their heads in the vicinity of active pool drains, their hair may become entangled in the drain cover or grating. For the period 1978 to 1996, the Consumer Product Safety Commission reports 49 entanglement incidents (including 13 deaths) where the victims' heads were held under the water in spas, hot tubs, and whirlpools. This paper outlines several drain cover concepts that may mitigate or eliminate the entanglement danger.

Anti-Hair Entanglement: Cantilevered Grating Elements
Triodyne Safety Alert v. 2 #1 (March 2000)
Peter J. Poczynok, Adam K. Dybek, and Ralph L. Barnett

Hair entrapment is a failure mode shared by swimming pools, wading pools, spas, hot tubs, and whirlpool bathtub appliances. When hair is entrained in the discharge flow through a suction fitting or drain, its withdrawal will generally be resisted by gravity, drag, friction, buoyancy and interface. Large withdrawal forces obviously lead to a horrifying safety problem. In an attempt to manage the magnitude of these forces, the pool industry introduced their first standard relative to hair entrapment on November 3, 1987; ASME/ANSI A112.19.8M - 1987, Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances. The 1987 ANSI standard does not recognize self-locking types of entanglement. Nevertheless, 30 cases were reported to the Consumer Product Safety Commission from January 1990 through May 1996 where hair entanglement occurred because of tangling rather than strong suction forces. An additional four cases of entanglement are reported by the CPSC from April, 1981 through February, 1985. This paper explores the use of cantilevered grating elements in rectangular and circular drains for shedding these self-locking tangles.

Anti-Hair Snare Pool Drain Cover
Triodyne Safety Brief v. 18 #4 (May 2001)
Ralph L. Barnett and Peter J. Poczynok P. E.

A drain cover for swimming pools, spas and hot tubs has been designed which addresses eight hazards associated with conventional drain systems. This new drain cover, illustrated in Fig. 1, eliminates hair entanglement, child evisceration and finger entrapment as well as minimizing body entrapment. Furthermore, its design and construction provide effective countermeasures against vandalism, broken drain covers, missing drain covers and structural deterioration due to environmental antagonists. Additional features unrelated to safety include a universal fastening system which adapts the cover to all circular main drains available in the United States. Also the drain cover is an order of magnitude stronger than its competitors and has a safe flow rate that is 37% greater than its nearest competitor. This paper presents an anatomy of the productís development.

Critique: Drain Cover Standard ASME/ANSI - A112.19.8M-1987 (1996) Case Study: Steering Wheel
Triodyne Safety Brief v. 19 #4 (February 2002)
Ralph L. Barnett and Peter J. Poczynok P.E.

The current ASME/ANSI standard for pool/spa drain covers is relied upon as an effective guideline for drain system safety by pool industry practitioners, state building code commissions, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the National Spa and Pool Institute, and a myriad of pool safety sophisticates. In fact, it is a license to kill. To demonstrate its shortcomings in the dawn of its next revision, an ordinary steering wheel is shown to satisfy the current standard while exposing bathers to every known fatal drain cover scenario. The paper raises a new issue: ASME, ANSI and pool professionals may all be in legal jeopardy.

US Patent No. 5,894,609
Safety System for Multiple Drain Pools
April 20, 1999
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. D410,073
Drain Apparatus I
May 18, 1999 (Design Patent)
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. D421,101
Drain Construction
February 22, 2000 (Design Patent)
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. D421,102
Drain Construction
February 22, 2000 (Design Patent)
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. D421,295
Drain Construction
February 29, 2000 (Design Patent)
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. 6,088,842
Drain Assembly for Preventing Hair Entanglement in a Pool or Hot Tub.: July 18, 2000
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. D439,957 S
Anti-Hair Snare
April 3, 2001 (Design Patent)
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. 6,230,337 B1
Anti-Vacuum Drain Cover
May 15, 2001
Ralph L. Barnett

Above Ground Swimming Pools - Safety Concepts
Triodyne Safety Brief v. 23 #1 (March 2003)
Ralph L. Barnett and Peter J. Poczynok, P.E.

The above-ground pool shown in this paper has been retrofitted with a perimeter safety barrier which consists of a fence, gate, ladder cage, water-side pool ladder, and an anti-grip/anti-foothold system. These safety concepts are combined to address the inadvertent and advertent foibles of bathers and bystanders who range from infants to adults, from uncoordinated to skillful, and from casual to mischievously determined. There are no proprietary devices used in the safety system; all of the concepts are well known and can therefore be applied by anyone skilled in the art. The prototype safety system eliminates every classic danger including diving, jumping, deck-side horseplay and unauthorized access. The system itself introduces new hazards that may be controlled using safeguards that are described in the paper.

Boogie Board Flexibility
Triodyne Safety Brief v. 24 #4 (December 2003)
Ralph Lipsey Barnett and Peter Joseph Poczynok

The flexibility of a closed cell polyethylene boogie board provides a man-machine interaction that differs qualitatively from the relatively rigid surfboard. Under the action of gravity and buoyancy forces, the closed cell polyethylene boogie board exhibits very large deflections that effect the shape of its bottom control surface. This paper demonstrates how hand placement provides an additional degree of freedom for the surfer.

US Patent No. 6,738,994 B2
Drain Cover
May 25, 2004
Ralph L. Barnett

Anti-Diving Safety Systems for Swimming Pools
Triodyne Safety Brief v. 26 #3 (August 2004)
Robert Kaplan and Ralph L. Barnett

This paper addresses new design concepts for the anti-diving system introduced in 2003 by Barnett and Poczynok.

US Patent No. 6,865,755 B2
Interlocked Drain Covers
March 15, 2005
Ralph L. Barnett

US Patent No. 6,988,282 B2
Drain Cover
January 24, 2006
Ralph L. Barnett

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